Was Peter full of pride in Matthew 16:22?
In the larger scheme, this has nothing to do with pride on Peters part, Peter was responding to what Jesus had told the disciples about His suffering that was to come, in order to unpack this a little more, Jesus had prophesied His death throughout His 3 1/2 year ministry with the disciples.
What was actually happening here with Peter was a spiritual encounter between Jesus and Satan. Satan was uncertain whether he should try to kill Jesus, so he used Peter to attempt to learn if should do it. This is the crux of what was happening with Peter’s comment.
1 Corinthians 2:7–8
7 But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the world unto our glory:
8 Which none of the princes of this world knew: for had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.
Satan, demons and non believers are all in the same boat when it comes to spiritual enlightenment. Satan and Demons do not have the Spirit of the Lord in them as Angels do, they may know what is in scripture, but its meaning escapes them.
1 Corinthians 2:12-14
12 Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God.
13 Which things also we speak, not in the words which man's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing spiritual things with spiritual.
14 But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned.
Consider the fact that God first revealed the prophecies of salvation in the garden at the time of Adam and Eves exile, Satan himself was present (Genesis 3:15), not to mention all the prophesies surrounding Jesus.
Consider the following, more than 300 Messianic prophecies were made in the Old Testament and then fulfilled through Jesus' life, death and resurrection. These prophesies took place over thousands of years with multiple opportunities for Satan to have understood the particulars.
The chances of one person fulfilling a mere eight of these prophecies are one-in-100,000,000,000,000,000. For one person to fulfill 48 of these prophecies, the number becomes staggering – one chance in 10-to-the-157th power. Add to that the 250 other prophecies, and it becomes impossible for any other person except Jesus to ever fit that particular sequence of time and events spoken over His life, yet Satan still did not know what he should do about the life of Jesus.
The Lord operated in plain site and Satan still did not understand what was happening for thousands of years before and up to the moment with Peter. God plays fair and openly.
Satan had Herod attempted to kill Jesus when he was born, but had no idea of the timing of His birth nor where Jesus was located at the time he ordered the killing of the children from newborn to two years old. (Matthew 2)
The larger view of what was happening, is that Satan can use anyone, even a person who was in close proximity to Jesus Himself. He hides within ones personality, in the case with Peter, he used the aspect of Peters character as a protective, fight back type of person. Which speaks to his comment to Jesus in context. (Matthew 16:22)
Peter did not understand the spiritual implications of the moment anymore than the disciples lack of understanding of Jesus prophesy of his death and resurrection, even though Jesus said this directly to them many times.
21 From that time forth began Jesus to shew unto his disciples, how that he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised again the third day.
22 Then Peter took him, and began to rebuke him, saying, Be it far from thee, Lord: this shall not be unto thee.
23 But he turned, and said unto Peter, Get thee behind me, Satan: thou art an offence unto me: for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but those that be of men.
There are several references in the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke) to Jesus predicting his own death, the first two occasions build up to the final prediction of his crucifixion.
Matthew's Gospel adds a prediction, before he and his disciples enter Jerusalem, that he will be crucified there.
In the Gospel of Mark, Jesus predicts his death three times. Mark 8:31–33
The setting for the first prediction is somewhere near Caesarea Philippi, immediately after Peter proclaims Jesus as the Messiah.
The Gospel of Matthew 16:21–28 includes this episode,
The Gospel of Luke 9:22–27 shortens the account, dropping the dialogue between Jesus and Peter.
Each time Jesus predicts his arrest and death, the disciples in some way or another manifest their incomprehension, and Jesus uses the occasion to teach them new things.
The second warning appears in Mark 9:30–32 (and also in Matthew 17:22–23).
The third prediction in the Matthew 20:17–19 specifically mentions crucifixion:
The Gospel of John, in chapters 12 to 17, mentions several occasions where Jesus prepared his disciples for his departure, which the gospel also refers to as his "glorification": John 12:23–24