The Book of Job does not specifically name its author. The most likely candidates are Job, Elihu, Moses, and Solomon.
The date of the writing would be determined by the author of the Book. If Moses was the author, the date would be around 1440 B.C. If Solomon, the date would be around 950 B.C. Because we don’t know the author, we can’t know the actual date of the writing. It is written to the whole of mankind emphasizing the Omniscience of God.
The Book of Job helps us to understand the following: Satan cannot bring financial and physical destruction upon us unless it is by God’s permission. God has power over what Satan can and cannot do. It is beyond our human ability to understand the "why’s" behind all the suffering in the world. We do know that the wicked do not operate with impunity, at some point the will receive they're just dues. We cannot always blame suffering and sin on our lifestyles, suffering may sometimes be allowed in our lives to purify, test, teach, or strengthen us, in many instances God permits suffering in this life for our sins rather than suffer eternally after the judgement.
The book of Job opens with a scene in heaven where Satan comes to accuse Job before God. He insists Job only serves God because God protects him and seeks God’s permission to test Job’s faith and loyalty. God grants His permission, within certain boundaries. Job loses his family, his wealth, and his health. Job’s three friends Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar, come to “comfort” him and to discuss his series of tragedies. They insist his suffering is punishment for sin in his life. Job, remains devoted to God through all of this and contends that his life has not been one of sin. A fourth man, Elihu, tells Job he needs to humble himself and submit to God’s use of trials to purify his life. Finally, Job questions God Himself and learns valuable lessons about the sovereignty of God and his need to totally trust in the Lord. Job is then restored to health, happiness, and prosperity twice that of his earlier state.
Job ponders the cause of his misery, three questions came to his mind. "Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean? not one?" Job 14:4
Job’s second question, "But man dieth, and wasteth away: yea, man giveth up the ghost, and where is he?" Job14:10 (This is a question about eternity and life and death.)
Job’s third question. “If a man die, shall he live again? all the days of my appointed time will I wait, till my change come.” Job 14:14
The answer to all these questions are found in Christ, for Job it is believing on the coming of the Christ. “So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory. O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory?” 1 Corinthians 15:54-55
The Book of Job reminds us that there is a "cosmic conflict" going on behind the scenes that we usually know nothing about. Often we wonder why God allows something, and we question or doubt God’s goodness, without seeing the full picture. The Book of Job teaches us to trust God under all circumstances. We must trust God, not only WHEN we do not understand, but BECAUSE we do not understand. “As for God, his way is perfect: the word of the Lord is tried: he is a buckler to all those that trust in him.” Psalm 18:30
A buckler was a type of defensive armor, a shield, if God’s ways are “perfect,” then we can trust that whatever He does—and whatever He allows—is also perfect. This may not seem possible to us, but our minds are not God’s mind. It is true that we can’t expect to understand His mind perfectly, as He reminds us.
“For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, saith the Lord. For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways, and my thoughts than your thoughts.” Isaiah 55:8-9
Nevertheless, our responsibility to God is to obey Him, to trust Him, and to submit to His will, whether we understand it or not. “For I know the thoughts that I think toward you, saith the Lord, thoughts of peace, and not of evil, to give you an expected end.” Jeremiah 29:11